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the maya civilization *

1200-1000 olmec
1800-900 early preclassic maya
900-300 middle preclassic maya
300 b.c. - a.d. 250 late preclassic maya

250-600 early classic maya
600-900 late classic maya
900-1500 post classic maya
1521-1821 colonial period
1821- today independent mexico

11,000 the first hunter-gatherers settle in the maya highlands and lowlands.
3114-3113 the creation of the world takes place, according to the maya long count calendar.
2000 the rise of the olmec civilization, from which many aspects of maya culture are derived. village farming becomes established throughout maya regions.
700  mayan writing is developed.
400 the earliest known solar calendars are carved in stone.
300 the maya adopt the idea of a society ruled by nobles and kings.
100 the city of teotihuac�n is founded in the rainforest and for hundreds of years is the cultural, religious and trading centre
100  decline of the olmecs.
400 maya highlands are under the domination of teotihuac�n the end of maya culture and language begins in some parts of the region
500 tikal becomes the first great maya city. citizens from teotihuac�n arrive, with new ideas for weapons, and human devotion.
600 a mysterious event destroys teotihuac�n. tikal becomes the largest city in mesoam�rica. tours still run to tikal today.
683 at age 80, the emperor pacal dies . he is buried in the temple of the inscriptions at palenque. mayan pyramids can still be seen today
751 trade between maya areas declines and conflict increases.
869 in tikal, construction stops and the city begins to come to an end.
899  tikal is abandoned.
900 the classic period of maya history ends, with the collapse of the southern lowland cities. maya cities in the northern yucat�n continue to thrive. development of the puuc style in uxmal, kabah and labn�.
1200 northern maya cities begin to be abandoned.
1224 the city of chich�n itz� in yucatan is abandoned by the toltecs. the itz� people settle in the deserted area.
1244 the itz� leave chich�n itz� mexico for unknown reasons
1263 the itz� begin building the city of mayap�n.
1283  mayap�n becomes the capital of yucat�n
1441 mayap�n is abandoned by 1461. after this, warring groups compete to rule over the others.
1517 the spanish first arrive on the shores of yucat�n under hern�ndez de c�rdoba, the arrival of the spanish brings diseases to the maya including smallpox, influenza and measles. within a century, 90 per cent of mesoam�rica's native populations will have died.
1519 hern�n cort�s begins exploring yucat�n.
1524 cort�s meets the itz� people, the last of the maya to remain free of the spanish.
1528 the spanish begin their conquest of the northern maya. the maya fight back
1541 the spanish conquer the maya.
1542 the spanish establish a capital city at m�rida in yucat�n.
1695 the ruins of tikal in guatamela are discovered by a spanish priest, who had become lost in the jungle.
1697 the city of tayasal, capital of the itz� in the pet�n, is taken by the spanish. it was the last maya independent political entity
1712 the maya of the chiapas highlands rise against the mexican government. they continue to do so off and on until today. 
1821  mexico becomes independent from spain.
1839 american diplomat and amateur archaeologist john lloyd stephens and english artist frederick catherwood begin exploring maya regions
1847 the yucat�n maya rise up against the mexican government. the rebellion is so successful that the maya almost take over the entire peninsula in the "war of the castes".
1910  the mexican revolution begins.
1952 the priest-king pacal's tomb at palenque is discovered

maya hieroglyphic signs are first catalogued . looting of maya tombs and sites begins around this time in the southern lowlands.

(based on the book 'mystery of the maya')

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